Ikhaya Izincwadi ze-HorrorFiction Inyanga Yokuziqhenya Esabekayo: 'IDracula' kanye neQueerness engenakuphikwa kaBram Stoker

Inyanga Yokuziqhenya Esabekayo: 'IDracula' kanye neQueerness engenakuphikwa kaBram Stoker

by Waylon Jordan
I-Bram Stoker Dracula

Kunezikhathi phakathi kweNyanga Yokuziqhenya eHorror engaziyo ukuthi abantu bazongiziba ngokuphelele. Bese kuba nezikhathi lapho ngishaya phansi amachopho bese ngilungiselela okwenziwa ngemuva. Njengoba ngibhala isihloko sale ndatshana mayelana Dracula–Enye yamanoveli ami engiwathanda kakhulu - ake sithi imibono kaKurt Russell noBilly Baldwin bayadansa ekhanda lami.

Ngakho-ke, nakhu kuhamba…

Eminyakeni ecishe ibe ngu-125 kusukela Dracula sashicilelwa okokuqala, sifunde okuningi ngathi nangomuntu owabhala mhlawumbe inoveli ye-vampire edume kunayo yonke, futhi iqiniso ukuthi, uBram Stoker wayeyindoda eyachitha impilo yakhe eminingi yobudala ekhathazekile ngamanye amadoda .

Khombisa A: Walt Whitman

Lapho eneminyaka engamashumi amabili nane ubudala, uStoker osemncane wabhala okungaba enye yezincwadi ezinothando kakhulu engake ngazifundela imbongi yaseMelika uWalt Whitman. Kuqale kanjena:

Uma uyindoda engikuthatha ukuba ube yiyo ungathanda ukuthola le ncwadi. Uma ungekho anginandaba nokuthi uyathanda noma cha futhi ngicela kuphela ukuthi ukufake emlilweni ungafundanga kude. Kepha ngikholwa ukuthi uzoyithanda. Angicabangi ukuthi kukhona indoda ephilayo, ngisho nawe ongaphezu kobandlululo lwesigaba samadoda anomqondo omncane, ongathandi ukuthola incwadi evela kumuntu omncane, isihambi, emhlabeni jikelele - indoda ukuhlala esimeni esingawahloniphi amaqiniso owaculayo kanye nendlela owahlabelela ngayo.

UStoker uzoqhubeka akhulume ngesifiso sakhe sokukhuluma noWhitman njengoba kwenza izimbongi, ambize ngo “mphathi,” futhi athi unomona futhi ubukeka eyisaba inkululeko leyo umbhali osekhulile ayeqhuba ngayo impilo yakhe. Ekugcineni uqeda ngale ndlela:

Yeka ukuthi kumnandi kanjani kumuntu onempilo oqinile oneso lowesifazane kanye nesifiso sengane ukuzwa ukuthi ingakhuluma nendoda engaba yiyo uma ifisa ubaba, nomfowethu nenkosikazi emphefumulweni wayo. Angicabangi ukuthi uzohleka, Walt Whitman, noma ungangidelela, kodwa kuyo yonke imicimbi ngiyabonga ngothando lonke nozwelo onginike lona ngokufana nohlobo lwami.

Akukona ukugxumagxuma komcabango wokucabanga ukuthi ngabe uStoker wayengabe esho ukuthini ngo “hlobo lwami.” Noma kunjalo, nokho, akakwazanga ukuzisho yena uqobo ngamagama, edansa ebazungezile.

Ungafunda izinhlamvu ezigcwele futhi uqhubeke nokuxoxa ngo- UKUFAKA LAPHA. UWhitman, empeleni, waphendula le nsizwa, futhi waqala izincwadi ezazizoqhubeka amashumi eminyaka ngandlela thile. KwaStoker, watshela umngani wakhe uHorace Traubel:

Wayengumfana osemncane we-sassy. Ngifuna ukushisa incwadi noma cha — akukaze kwenzeke kimi ukuthi ngenze noma yini: yini isihogo engangikhathalela ukuthi ibalulekile noma ayinawo amandla? ubemusha, enomoya opholile, e-Ireland: leyo bekuyinani elikhokhelwe ukungena — futhi kwanele: wamukelekile!

Ngemuva kweminyaka, uStoker wayezoba nethuba lokuhlangana nezithombe zakhe kaningi. NgoWhiteman, wabhala:

Ngamthola konke engangikuphupha ngaye, noma engangikufisa ngaye: omqondo omkhulu, obanzi obanzi, obekezelayo kuze kube sezingeni lokugcina; ukuzwelana komzimba; ukuqonda ngokuqonda okwakubonakala kudlula okwabantu.

Umbukiso B: USir Henry Irving

Faka ithonya lesibili elikhulu empilweni kaStoker.

Ngo-1878, uStoker waqashwa njengenkampani nomphathi webhizinisi eLyceum Theatre eyayiphethwe futhi isebenza yi-Ireland – kanti abanye bangathi ngumlingisi odume kakhulu emhlabeni, uSir Henry Irving. Indoda enesibindi, emkhulu kunempilo ebifuna ukunakwa yilabo abaseduze nayo, bekungekho isikhathi nakancane ngaphambi kokuba nayo, ingene endaweni ephakeme empilweni kaStoker. Wethula uStoker emphakathini waseLondon, futhi wambeka ethubeni lokuhlangana nabanye ababhali abanjengoSir Arthur Conan Doyle.

Yize kunokungaqiniseki okuthile kokuthi umbhali wagcina kuphi ukugqugquzela umlando we-Dracula-Vlad Tepes noma i-vampire legend yase-Ireland u-Abhartach – cishe kuvunyelwana umhlaba wonke ukuthi umbhali ususele encazelweni yomlingiswa ku-Irving kanye nakwenye indoda ngaphezulu… okunamandla… ubuciko.

Ephepheni lowe-2002 le-American Historical Review elalibizwa ngokuthi “” Buffalo Bill Meets Dracula: William F. Cody, Bram Stoker, and the Frontiers of Racial Decay, ” isazi-mlando uLouis Warren wabhala:

Izincazelo eziningi zikaStoker zika-Irving zihambelana kakhulu nokunikeza kwakhe isibalo sokuqamba abantu besikhathi sakhe baphawule ngokufana. … Kodwa uBram Stoker waphinde wafaka ngaphakathi ukwesaba nobutha umqashi wakhe akugqugquzela kuye, okwenza kwaba izisekelo zenganekwane yakhe eyi-gothic.

Ngo-1906, unyaka ngemuva kokushona kuka-Irving, uStoker washicilela i-biography enemiqulu emibili yale ndoda enesihloko esithi Ukukhumbula komuntu siqu kukaHenry Irving.

Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuthi, yize wayeqashwe yaseshashalazini iminyaka engaba ngu-27, waqala ukubhala amanothi kuqala Dracula cishe ngo-1890 noma kunjalo. Futhi kungaba yindoda yesithathu, ekugcineni ebonakala sengathi igqugquzele umbhali ukuthi abhale ipeni ukuze aqale inganekwane.

Umbukiso C: Oscar Wilde

Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi ngonyaka ofanayo lapho uStoker aqala ukusebenzela u-Irving eLyceum Theatre, waphinde washada noFlorence Balcombe, ubuhle obedumile nowesifazane owayekade exhumene Oscar Wilde.

UStoker wayemazi uWilde kusukela eminyakeni yakhe yaseyunivesithi, futhi waze wancoma nozakwabo waseIreland ukuba abe yilungu leFilosophical Society yalesi sikhungo. Eqinisweni, la madoda amabili ayenobungani obuqhubekayo, obusondelene, futhi mhlawumbe nangaphezulu, mhlawumbe amashumi amabili eminyaka, futhi isikhala phakathi kwabo saqala ukukhula kuphela ngemuva UWilde waboshwa ngaphansi kweSodomy Laws yangaleso sikhathi.

Esihlokweni sakhe esithi "'Isifiso Sasendle Sangithatha': Umlando We-Homoerotic weDracula,” UTalia Schaffer wayenakho lokhu ukusho:

Ukusula ngokucophelela kukaStoker igama likaWilde kuyo yonke imibhalo yakhe eshicilelwe (futhi engashicilelwe) kunika umfundi isithombe sokuthi uStoker wayengazi ukuthi ukhona uWilde. Akukho okungaba kude neqiniso… Izinto zikaStoker zingafundwa ngaphandle kobunzima obukhulu; basebenzisa ikhodi ebonakalayo ebeklanyelwe ukuphulwa. Emibhalweni ephathelene noWilde, uStoker wagcwala izikhala lapho igama likaWilde kufanele livele khona ngamagama anjengokuthi "ukwehla," "ukungakhulumi," "ukuqonda," kanye nezinkomba zokuboshwa kwamaphoyisa ngababhali. Dracula uhlola ukwesaba nokukhathazeka kukaStoker njengendoda eyisitabane evalelekile ngesikhathi kuqulwa icala lika-Oscar Wilde.-Schaffer, Talia. "" Isifiso Sasendle Sangithatha ": Umlando We-Homoerotic weDracula." ELH 61, cha. 2 (1994): 381-425. Kufinyelelwe ngoJuni 9, 2021.

Eqinisweni, kwakungakapheli inyanga yokuboshwa kukaWilde lapho uStoker aqala khona ukubhala Dracula. Lobu budlelwano buhlala buheha izifundiswa eziningi ezigebhe umlando wabalobi ababili nemisebenzi yabo eshicilelwe.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, unoWilde, owabhala inoveli ekhuluma ngomuntu ongafi owayehlala impilo yakhe endaweni esobala, imiphumela yayizolahlwa, futhi wabamba iqhaza kuyo yonke imizwa ayithandayo. Wayengumdidiyeli ohamba kahle ngokumangalisayo owadonsela wonke amehlo kuye futhi wakwamukela.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, unoStoker, naye obhale inoveli ekhuluma ngokungafi. Kodwa-ke, ukungafi kukaStoker kwaphoqelelwa ukuba kusebenze ebusuku, kufihlwe ezithunzini, isinambuzane esondla abanye futhi ekugcineni sabulawa "ngokufanele" ngenxa yaso.

Akudingi gxumagxuma langempela emcabangweni nhlobo ukubona lezi zidalwa ezimbili njengezethulo zenjabulo yababhali bazo. UWilde waboshwa, waboshwa, wagcina edingisiwe ngenxa yobulili bakhe. UStoker ubesemshadweni oqinile - uma ehlanzekile ikakhulu - obengaqhubeka athi “ama-sodomites” kufanele axoshwe ogwini lwase-Great Britain njengabapolitiki abaningi abasondelene namuhla abahlukumeza umphakathi we-LBGTQ +, ukuze babanjwe kanye ibhulukwe phansi lapho becabanga ukuthi akekho obukayo.

Kuyakhanyisa futhi ukuqaphela ukuthi bobabili uWilde noStoker bafa ngenxa yezinkinga ezivela kugcunsula, i-STD ejwayelekile ngokwanele eVictorian London okuthi ngandlela thile izwakale sengathi ibheke kakhulu ebudlelwaneni babo, kepha lokho akulona lapha noma laphaya.

Encwadini yakhe, Okuthile okuseGazini: Indaba Engaziwa yeBram Stoker, Indoda Eyabhala IDracula, UDavid J. Skal uthi i-specter yeWilde ingatholakala kuwo wonke amakhasi we Dracula, kufana nokuqothuka kokweqa kukaWilde kulenga impilo kaStoker uqobo. UWilde wayeyisithunzi sikaStoker. Wayengu-doppelganger wakhe owaba nesibindi sokwenza lokho indoda uqobo eyayingeke ikwazi noma yayingeke ikwenze.

IDracula kaBram Stoker

IDracula First Edition Bram Stoker

Umzabalazo wangaphakathi kaStoker ukulo lonke ikhasi le- Dracula. Umzamo wakhe wokubuyisana kwesifiso nobuyena nemizwa yokungaqiniseki futhi yebo, kwesinye isikhathi ukuzenyeza okubekwe phezu kwakhe futhi kufundiswe kuye ngumphakathi owenza ukweba okungekho emthethweni kuqoshwe kuzo zonke izigaba.

Umuntu akudingeki anikeze incwadi ukufundwa okufushane ukuze ayithole. Kunezikhathi eziningi kuyo yonke indaba lapho ukumangala, okunye, nokugxuma okufanekisayo kusuka ekhasini.

Cabanga ngendawo ye-vampire phezu kweHarker lapho omakoti beza kuye. Umboza umuntu ngomzimba wakhe, abeke isimangalo kuye. Noma mhlawumbe ubudlelwano obuphezulu nobuzithobayo phakathi kukaDracula noRenfield obubona ukuthi lo msolwa uhlanyiswa yisifiso sakhe sokukhonza?

Sona kanye isenzo sokuphakelwa kwe-vampiric, ukukhipha igazi lempilo ngokulunywa sithatha indawo yokungena ngokocansi kangangoba nasekuthambekeni kokuqala kwefilimu kule noveli, abaqondisi kanye nababhali bayalelwe ukuthi i-Count ingaluma abesifazane kuphela isiphakamiso sobungqingili noma ubungqingili.

Eqinisweni, ngesikhathi seHays Code, okuwukuphela kwendlela ababengaphuma ngayo ngokufaka noma yini yalolo hlobo kungenxa yokuthi uDracula wayeyisigebengu futhi wayehlose ukufa. Noma kunjalo ibingafakwa amakhodi bese iphakanyiswa, kepha ayikaze ikhonjiswe.

Lokhu-ke, kuholele ezizukulwaneni eziphelele zababukeli bamafilimu abangakaze bafunde imithombo yolwazi yokuqala futhi kungenzeka ukuthi abakaze babone ukuqina kwemvelo Dracula. Bangabantu ababonakala ezigabeni zokuphawula lapho izindatshana ezinjengalezi zishicilelwa futhi zisola ababhali, bethi lokhu okuqukethwe sikwenzile, nokuthi sizama nje ukuphoqa izingqikithi ze-LGBTQ + lapho zingekho khona.

Empeleni, yingakho ngingakaze ngikhulume ngamafilimu kuze kube manje. Le ngxoxo isuselwe ngokuqinile kunoveli yasekuqaleni nakumuntu owayiklama: indoda eyayicishe ibe ngungqingili futhi mhlawumbe iyisitabane, umbhali owayelwa nobunikazi nesifiso owadala indaba engafiyo njengesihloko sayo, kanye indoda ezinikele impilo yayo yonke kwamanye amadoda empilweni yayo ivezwe eminyakeni engamashumi amathathu edlule.

Isifinyezo Sokugcina

Kukhona abantu ngokungangabazeki abayeka ukufunda le ndatshana ngemuva kwesigaba sokuqala noma ezimbili – abanye abakwazanga ngisho nangaphezu kwesihloko. Kulabo ababekezele, okokuqala ngithi ngiyabonga. Okwesibili ngiyakucela ukuthi ubheke ukuphendula kwakho kulolu lwazi ngaphambi kokuba uphendule.

Cabanga ngaphambi kokumemeza, "Ngubani onendaba?" Vele, ungahle ungakhathali. Vele, lolu lwazi lungahle lungasho lutho kuwe nakancane. Unesibindi esingakanani sokucabanga ukuthi lokho kusho ukuthi ulwazi alusizi kubo bonke abanye abantu emhlabeni, futhi.

Ukuba yingxenye yomphakathi obukelwa phansi kuvame ukuthi umlando wethu uyacekelwa phansi noma unqatshelwe thina. Abantu abangenawo umlando ababonakali neze njengabantu. Silawulwa ukungabi nalwazi ngathi, futhi labo abangahlali emphakathini bangenza kalula nje ukuthi singabantu abaphambukayo abasha emvelweni owavela ngawo-1970.

Ngakho-ke, kungahle kungasho lutho kuwe, kepha empeleni kusho okuthile kumalungu omphakathi we-LGBTQ + nawo angabalandeli abesabekayo ukwazi ukuthi enye yezinoveli ezesabekayo zesikhathi sonke yabhalwa yindoda eyabelana ngezimpi zethu futhi yabambana ngobuyena bakhe ngendlela abaningi bethu abanayo.

Lokho kufanelekile ngo-2021, futhi leyo yingxoxo yeNyanga Yokuziqhenya Esazoqhubeka ikhuthaza.

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